Most programming languages allow you to include one module or file from another. Vim knows how to track program identifiers in included files using the configuration settings path , include , suffixesadd , and includeexpr. The identifier search see :help include-search is an alternative to maintaining a tags file with ctags for system headers.
The settings for C programs work out of the box. Other languages are supported too, but require tweaking. If everything is configured right, you can press [i on an identifier to display its definition, or [d for a macro constant. Also when you press gf with the cursor on a filename, Vim searches the path to find it and jump there. A way to get the same level of crappy find capability, without polluting the path, is to just make another mapping. Just to reiterate: the path parameter was designed for header files.
If you want more proof, there is even a :checkpath command to see whether the path is functioning. Load a C file and run :checkpath. It will display filenames it was unable to find that are included transitively by the current file. Also :checkpath! The directory specifiers and globs are pretty powerful, see :help file-searching for the details. In my C ftplugin more on that later , I also have the path search for include files within the current project, like.
It depends on your system of course. A fairly idomatic mapping uses bracket commands to move through quickfix items:. If, after updating the program and rebuilding, you are curious what the error messages said last time, use :colder and :cnewer to return. To see more information about the currently selected error use :cc , and use :copen to see the full quickfix buffer. You can populate the quickfix yourself without running :make with :cfile , :caddfile , or :cexpr. Vim parses output from the build process according to the errorformat string, which contains scanf-like escape sequences.
To activate this compiler profile, run :compiler clang. This is typically done in an ftplugin file. Another example is running GNU Diction on a text document to identify wordy and commonly misused phrases in sentences. After you run :compiler diction you can use the normal :make command to run it and populate the quickfix. The final mild convenience in my.
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In vim, split the arguments into their own windows with :all. In the top window, for h1, run :difft. Now hello and goobye are identified as different in the current chunk. Pressing ]c or [c would move between chunks if there were more than one. A shortcut would be running vim -d h1 h2 instead or its alias, vimdiff h1 h2 which applies :difft to all windows.
Alternatively, load just h1 with vim h1 and then :diffsplit h2. Remember that fundamentally these commands just load files into windows and set the diff mode. First configure git:. Now, when you hit a merge conflict, run git mergetool. It will bring Vim up with four windows. This part looks scary, and is where I used to flail around and often quit in frustration. Move within the bottom window with ]c , and for each chunk choose whether to replace it with text from local, base, or remote — or whether to write in your own change which might combine parts from several.
Once done with the merge, run :wqa to save all the windows and quit. If you want to abandon the merge instead, run :cq to abort all changes and return an error code to the shell. This will signal to git that it should ignore your changes. Diffget can also accept a range. The three-way marge is fairly easy after all. Finally, as of patch 8. This can be more efficient than shelling out to an external program, and allows for a choice of diff algorithms. After editing some more, you :w , but it writes over the original file. What you want for this scenario is :saveas newname , which does the write but also changes the filename of the buffer for future writes.
Alternately, the :file newname command will change the filename without doing a write.
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It also pays off to learn more about the read and write commands. Becuase r and w are Ex commands, they work with ranges. Here are some variations you might not know about:. Useless fun fact: we piped a line to tr in an example above to apply a ROT cypher, but Vim has that functionality built in with the the g?
Apply it to a motion, like g? Filetypes are a way to change settings based on the type of file detected in a buffer. An example is doing hex editing.
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Any file can be viewed as raw hexadecimal values. GitHub user the9ball created a clever ftplugin script that filters a buffer back and forth through the xxd utility for hex editing. The xxd utility was bundled as part of Vim 5 for convenience.
The Vim todo. Delete all characters from the cursor to the next occurance of but not including "cat". Change word Change sentence Change from cursor to end of line See "d" delete above for other variations. Move cursor to f irst occurance of letter "x" after the cursor but in the same line Move cursor to "n"th occurance of letter "x" in line Go to next occurance in line. Move cursor backwards to next occurance of letter "x" in line Move cursor backwards to "n"th occurance of letter "x" in line Go to previous occurance in line.
Move cursor to one char before the next occurance of letter "x" in line Move cursor to one char before the "n"th occurance of letter "x" in line. Go to one char before the next occurance in line. Move cursor backwards to one char before the next occurance of letter "x" Move cursor backwards to one char before the "n"th occurance of letter "x" Go to one char before previous occurance in line. Turn off the special meaning of a character. Matches a string beginning with the letter 'a' followed by any character, again followed by the letter 'c'.
Matches a string beginning with the letter 'a' followed by zero or more of the letter 'b', followed by zero or more of the letter 'c' and then followed by the letter 'd'. Finds a line containing a word comprised of all lower case letters with a single blank on either side of the word. This tells vim to automatically write the file when switching to edit another file. See tags, editing multiple files next, rewind. Create backup file of file changes while editing. Set file encryption for file save of buffer contents.
Vim 7. Define right margin for line wrapping. Wrap when past 8 characters from the edge of column display often default Vim supports tag name completion. Start the typing the tag name and then type the TAB key and name completion will complete the tag name for you. The vim editor will jump into the tag to follow it to a new position in the file or to a new file. The vim editor will allow the user to jump back a level.
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When multiple entries exist in the tags file, such as a function declaration in a header file and a function definition the function itself , the operator can choose by issuing this command. The user will be presented with all the references to the function and the user will be prompted to enter the number associated with the appropriate one.
Jump to a particular position in the tag stack history. The command " :pop " will move by default "1" backwards in the stack history.
Jump to next matching tag. Also short form :tn and jump two :2tnext. Jump to previous matching tag. Also short form :tp and jump two :2tp. Jump to first matching tag. Also short form :tf , :trewind , :tr. Using multiple tag files one in each directory. Scan specified files listed in "Files".
About the Authors Steve Qualline is the author of many programming and Linux related books. He is a professional software engineer, author, and educator. Currently, he works for a large software company as a quality engineer devising ways to improve the quality and reliability of the code produced by their programmers. He is also an avid blimp enthusiast as well as a volunteer steam locomotive engineer on the Poway-Midland Railroad.
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